Evaluation and management of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis

Acta Paediatr. 2011 Sep;100(9):1185-94. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2011.02299.x. Epub 2011 May 5.


Craniosynostosis (craniostenosis) is premature fusion of the sutures of the cranial vault. Several factors can affect the growth of the cranial vault during embryonic life and after birth, leading to different types of craniosynostosis; these can be classified on the basis of the specific sutures that are fused. Prognosis is improved by early diagnosis, and it is important to establish the correct approach to these patients on the basis of clinical and neuroradiological investigation. The first priority is to identify the type of craniosynostosis and to distinguish between the types that require surgical intervention and those that do not. We report on the different forms of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, their clinical and neuroradiological diagnoses, and surgical strategies.

Conclusion: The aim of this review is to provide to paediatricians a correct diagnostic approach and management of children affected from nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, for which a careful physical, ophthalmological and neurological examination is fundamental, whereas brain Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are necessary for patients in which the diagnosis is uncertain or for cases of syndromic craniosynostosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Craniosynostoses / diagnosis*
  • Craniosynostoses / epidemiology
  • Craniosynostoses / surgery
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Welfare
  • Prognosis
  • United States / epidemiology