Left ventricular mass and function were measured using ultrafast computed tomography, and were correlated with clinical status in 17 patients with aortic stenosis and/or insufficiency undergoing aortic valve replacement or balloon valvuloplasty. Wall mass was 159 +/- 38 gm/m2 initially, decreased 25% to 116 +/- 29 gm/m2 at 4 month (p less than 0.001), and decreased a total of 34% to 105 +/- 33 gm/m2 at 8 months after valve repair. By 8 months not only was the mean wall mass within the normal range, but only three patients retained abnormal hypertrophy. Ejection fraction increased 8% (p = 0.06). Clinical function improved in all patients, with only three patients remaining outside of New York Heart Association functional class 1 at 8 months. Regression of ventricular mass into the normal range correlated with attainment of class 1 functional status (p less than 0.02), despite a lack of increase of ejection fraction. The single patient followed for 8 months after valvuloplasty had minor wall mass regression and minor clinical improvement.