This study is one of very few that has investigated the neuropsychological functioning of both familial and clinical high risk subjects for psychosis. Participants (N = 164) were members of the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort in the following four groups: familial risk for psychosis (n = 62), clinical risk for psychosis (n = 20), psychosis (n = 13), and control subjects (n = 69). The neurocognitive performance of these groups was compared across 19 cognitive variables. The two risk groups did not differ significantly from controls, but differed from the psychosis group in fine motor function. Neuropsychological impairments were not evident in a non-help-seeking high-risk sample.