Structural remodeling of synapses in response to growth signals leads to long-lasting alterations in neuronal function in many systems. Synaptic growth factor receptors alter their signaling properties during transit through the endocytic pathway, but the mechanisms controlling cargo traffic between endocytic compartments remain unclear. Nwk (Nervous Wreck) is a presynaptic F-BAR/SH3 protein that regulates synaptic growth signaling in Drosophila melanogaster. In this paper, we show that Nwk acts through a physical interaction with sorting nexin 16 (SNX16). SNX16 promotes synaptic growth signaling by activated bone morphogenic protein receptors, and live imaging in neurons reveals that SNX16-positive early endosomes undergo transient interactions with Nwk-containing recycling endosomes. We identify an alternative signal termination pathway in the absence of Snx16 that is controlled by endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-mediated internalization of receptors into the endosomal lumen. Our results define a presynaptic trafficking pathway mediated by SNX16, NWK, and the ESCRT complex that functions to control synaptic growth signaling at the interface between endosomal compartments.