There is still a paucity of research on the sociodemographic and other underlying factors associated with HIV transmission among women in India. This study was designed to investigate such factors in sexually experienced Indian women. We used data from the National Family Health Survey 3 (NFHS-3), which tested 52,853 women for HIV, including 27,556 husband and wife pairs. Significant risk factors for all women and married women only were: aged 26-35 years (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] = 3.65 and 2.53, respectively), being poor (AORs = 1.57 and 1.79), having had a genital sore in the last 12 months (AORs = 3.16 and 3.01) and having more than one sexual partner (AORs = 5.95 and 5.15). For husband and wife pairs, suffering sexual violence (AOR = 2.63), husband having other wife/wives (AOR = 3.40) and husband's education being secondary level or higher (AOR = 0.43) were significant. Intervention strategies in India should target young married (aged 25-35 years) and formerly married urban women who are poor, as well as those who have suffered sexual violence from their husbands, and/or are (or whose husbands are) multi-partnered. Empowerment of women is fundamental to HIV/AIDS prevention in India.