Osteochondral interface regeneration of rabbit mandibular condyle with bioactive signal gradients

J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011 Jun;69(6):e50-7. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2010.12.049. Epub 2011 Apr 5.


Purpose: Tissue engineering solutions focused on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) have expanded in number and variety during the past decade to address the treatment of TMJ disorders. The existing data on approaches for healing small defects in the TMJ condylar cartilage and subchondral bone, however, are sparse. The purpose of the present study was thus to evaluate the performance of a novel gradient-based scaffolding approach to regenerate osteochondral defects in the rabbit mandibular condyle.

Materials and methods: Miniature bioactive plugs for regeneration of small mandibular condylar defects in New Zealand white rabbits were fabricated. The plugs were constructed from poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres with a gradient transition between cartilage-promoting and bone-promoting growth factors.

Results: At 6 weeks of healing, the results suggested that the implants provided support for the neosynthesized tissue as evidenced by the histologic and 9.4 T magnetic resonance imaging findings.

Conclusion: The inclusion of bioactive factors in a gradient-based scaffolding design is a promising new treatment strategy for focal defect repair in the TMJ.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
  • Cartilage, Articular / pathology
  • Cartilage, Articular / physiology*
  • Lactic Acid
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Mandibular Condyle / pathology
  • Mandibular Condyle / physiology*
  • Microspheres
  • Osteogenesis
  • Polyglycolic Acid
  • Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer
  • Prostheses and Implants
  • Rabbits
  • Regeneration*
  • Temporomandibular Joint*
  • Tissue Engineering / methods*
  • Tissue Scaffolds


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
  • Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer
  • Polyglycolic Acid
  • Lactic Acid