Use of standard markers and incorporation of molecular markers into breast cancer therapy: Consensus recommendations from an International Expert Panel

Cancer. 2011 Apr 15;117(8):1575-82. doi: 10.1002/cncr.25660. Epub 2010 Nov 29.


Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease of different subtypes on the molecular, histopathological, and clinical level. Genomic profiling techniques have led to several prognostic and predictive gene signatures of breast cancer that may further refine outcome prediction, especially in clinically equivocal situations. In particular, the predictive value of today's most important therapeutic targets, ER and HER2, are strongly influenced by the proliferative status of the tumor. Genomic assays are generally performed in a centralized manner, whereas routine pathological evaluation is mostly done on a decentralized basis, making the comparison of these methods difficult. Thus, there remains considerable uncertainty about the use of the new molecular markers in routine clinical decision making and their role in patient selection or stratification for future clinical trials. To address this concern, a group of representatives from breast cancer research groups in the areas of breast pathology, genomic profiling, and clinical trials critically reviewed all available data. Consensus recommendations are made on the practical use of molecular markers in breast cancer management and their incorporation into future clinical trials.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis*
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Breast Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Gene Expression Profiling*
  • Humans
  • Prognosis


  • Biomarkers
  • Biomarkers, Tumor