Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are used in transplantation therapy to reconstitute the hematopoietic system. Human cord blood (hCB) transplantation has emerged as an attractive alternative treatment option when traditional HSC sources are unavailable; however, the absolute number of hCB HSCs transplanted is significantly lower than bone marrow or mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (MPBSCs). We previously demonstrated that dimethyl-prostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2) increased HSCs in vertebrate models. Here, we describe preclinical analyses of the therapeutic potential of dmPGE2 treatment by using human and nonhuman primate HSCs. dmPGE2 significantly increased total human hematopoietic colony formation in vitro and enhanced engraftment of unfractionated and CD34(+) hCB after xenotransplantation. In nonhuman primate autologous transplantation, dmPGE2-treated CD34(+) MPBSCs showed stable multilineage engraftment over 1 year postinfusion. Together, our analyses indicated that dmPGE2 mediates conserved responses in HSCs from human and nonhuman primates and provided sufficient preclinical information to support proceeding to an FDA-approved phase 1 clinical trial.
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