PCDD, PCDF, PCB and PBDE concentrations in breast milk of mothers residing in selected areas of Slovakia

Chemosphere. 2011 May;83(10):1383-90. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.02.070. Epub 2011 Apr 6.


The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in 33 breast milk samples collected in 2006-2007 from primipara mothers close to four industrial areas of Slovak Republic were determined. The total PCDDs/PCDFs and dl-PCBs expressed as TEQ based on WHO TEFs 1998 in breast milk samples varied from 5.0 to 51.8 pg g(-1) fat (median: 13.1 pg g(-1) fat; mean: 18.0 pg g(-1) fat). The measurements of seven PBDE congeners (IUPAC No. 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and 183) were performed for the first time in human milk from Slovakia. PBDE levels ranged between 0.22 and 1.62 ng g(-1) fat, with median and mean value of 0.43 ng g(-1) fat and 0.57 ng g(-1) fat respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between studied areas in total PBDE concentrations. Furthermore, this study presents first results concerning the daily intake (DI) of PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like compounds for the most vulnerable breast-fed infant population in Slovakia. The total PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB DI for an infant during the first 2 months of life was estimated in a range from 14.4 to 230 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w., with a median value of 58.9 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w.. The DI values substantially exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) 1-4 pg TEQ kg(-1)b.w. recommended by WHO. The dietary infant intake concerning PBDEs was estimated to be between 0.69 and 7.1 ng kg(-1)b.w.d(-1), with median value of 1.7 ng kg(-1)b.w.d(-1).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Benzofurans / analysis*
  • Breast Feeding / epidemiology
  • Diet / statistics & numerical data
  • Environmental Pollutants / analysis*
  • Female
  • Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Maternal Exposure / statistics & numerical data
  • Milk, Human / chemistry*
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls / analysis*
  • Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins / analogs & derivatives*
  • Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins / analysis
  • Polymers / analysis*
  • Rural Population / statistics & numerical data
  • Slovakia
  • Urban Population / statistics & numerical data
  • Young Adult


  • Benzofurans
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers
  • Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins
  • Polymers
  • polychlorodibenzofuran
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls