Apoptosis may occur via a death receptor-dependent or independent (mitochondrial) pathway. The mitochondrial pathway is regulated by small molecules, such as smac/Diablo, which activates caspase cascades. This study examined smac/DIABLO expression in 76 patients with endometrioid endometrial cancers. Presence of smac/DIABLO was quantified by Western blot analysis using nonfixed fresh frozen tissues. Its appearance was found in 55 (72%) of examined tumors. Smac/DIABLO expression significantly correlated with tumor grade (p<0.001). Patients with positive smac/DIABLO tumors had a longer disease-specific survival when compared with those with negative tumors in the 10-year follow-up (p=0.043). The study demonstrated that negative smac/DIABLO expression was a poor prognostic sign.