Serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) is a prominent target gene of the transcriptional response to cytokines in multiple myeloma and supports the growth of myeloma cells

Oncogene. 2011 Jul 14;30(28):3198-206. doi: 10.1038/onc.2011.79. Epub 2011 Apr 11.

Abstract

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a paradigm for a malignant disease that exploits external stimuli of the microenvironment for growth and survival. A thorough understanding of the complex interactions between malignant plasma cells and their surrounding requires a detailed analysis of the transcriptional response of myeloma cells to environmental signals. We determined the changes in gene expression induced by interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-21 or co-culture with bone marrow stromal cells in myeloma cell lines. Among a limited set of genes that were consistently activated in response to growth factors, a prominent transcriptional target of cytokine-induced signaling in myeloma cells was the gene encoding the serine/threonine kinase serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1), which is a down-stream effector of PI3-kinase. We could demonstrate a rapid, strong and sustained induction of SGK1 in the cell lines INA-6, ANBL-6, IH-1, OH-2 and MM.1S as well as in primary myeloma cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway abolished STAT3 phosphorylation and SGK1 induction. In addition, small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knock-down of STAT3 reduced basal and induced SGK1 levels. Furthermore, downregulation of SGK1 by shRNAs resulted in decreased proliferation of myeloma cell lines and reduced cell numbers. On the molecular level, this was reflected by the induction of cell cycle inhibitory genes, for example, CDKNA1/p21, whereas positively acting factors such as CDK6 and RBL2/p130 were downregulated. Our results indicate that SGK1 is a highly cytokine-responsive gene in myeloma cells promoting their malignant growth.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bone Marrow Cells / drug effects
  • Bone Marrow Cells / pathology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Cell Survival / genetics
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Cytokines / pharmacology*
  • Down-Regulation / genetics
  • Humans
  • Immediate-Early Proteins / deficiency
  • Immediate-Early Proteins / genetics*
  • Janus Kinases / metabolism
  • Multiple Myeloma / genetics*
  • Multiple Myeloma / metabolism
  • Multiple Myeloma / pathology*
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / deficiency
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics*
  • RNA Interference
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Transcription, Genetic / drug effects*
  • Transcription, Genetic / genetics*

Substances

  • Cytokines
  • Immediate-Early Proteins
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor
  • Janus Kinases
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • serum-glucocorticoid regulated kinase