Ten years of progress in vaccination against cancer: the need to counteract cancer evasion by dual targeting in future therapies

Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2011 Aug;60(8):1127-35. doi: 10.1007/s00262-011-0985-7. Epub 2011 Apr 9.


Although cancer immunology has made vigorous progress over the last decade, its future remains uncertain. Tumors have clearly proved subject to immune surveillance, leading to antigenic editing, and means of activating both T and B arms of the immune system have been devised. Therapeutic vaccination and monoclonal antibody therapy have so far proved disappointing, because tumors prove adept at evasion from immune control. Dual targeting could well counteract evasion, provided that the two targets are independent and are attacked simultaneously. This stage has nearly but not quite been reached in several forms of immunotherapy, particularly of B-cell cancers, although such treatment also carries hazards.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Cancer Vaccines*
  • Humans
  • Immunodominant Epitopes / immunology
  • Immunologic Surveillance
  • Immunotherapy*
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • Neoplasms
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Tumor Escape*


  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • Cancer Vaccines
  • Immunodominant Epitopes