Tumor microenvironment and progression

J Surg Oncol. 2011 May 1;103(6):468-74. doi: 10.1002/jso.21709.


Tumor blood vessels are heterogeneous, of at least six distinct types, are induced primarily by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), and provide a potentially useful therapeutic target. Breast cancer is characterized by changes in the microenvironment that result in altered tensional homeostasis. Also, breast cancers arise as the result of epigenetic as well as genetic changes. Tumor blood vessel pericytes result, in part, from bone marrow precursor cells, and VEGF is a negative regulator of glioblastoma tumor cell invasion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Breast Neoplasms / blood supply
  • Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • Disease Progression*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy*
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology
  • Neoplasms / blood supply*
  • Neoplasms / genetics
  • Neoplasms / physiopathology*
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / physiopathology*
  • Tumor Microenvironment* / drug effects
  • Tumor Microenvironment* / genetics
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A