VEGF and angiopoietin signaling in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis

Trends Mol Med. 2011 Jul;17(7):347-62. doi: 10.1016/j.molmed.2011.01.015. Epub 2011 Apr 12.


Solid tumors require blood vessels for growth and dissemination, and lymphatic vessels as additional conduits for metastatic spread. The identification of growth factor receptor pathways regulating angiogenesis has led to the clinical approval of the first antiangiogenic molecules targeted against the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 pathway. However, in many cases resistance to anti-VEGF-VEGFR therapy occurs, and thus far the clinical benefit has been limited to only modest improvements in overall survival. Therefore, novel treatment modalities are required. Here, we discuss the members of the VEGF-VEGFR family as well as the angiopoietin growth factors and their Tie receptors as potential novel targets for antiangiogenic and antilymphangiogenic therapies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / metabolism
  • Angiopoietins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Angiopoietins / genetics*
  • Animals
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Humans
  • Lymphatic Vessels / metabolism
  • Models, Animal
  • Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics*
  • Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology
  • Receptors, TIE / metabolism
  • Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / genetics*


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • Angiopoietins
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Receptors, TIE
  • Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor