Transfer of antigen between antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is potentially a physiologically relevant mechanism to spread antigen to cells with specialized stimulatory functions. Here we show that specific CD8+ T cell responses induced in response to intravenous administration of antigen-loaded bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs), were ablated in mice selectively depleted of endogenous lymphoid-resident langerin+ CD8α+ dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that the antigen is transferred from the injected cells to resident APCs. In contrast, antigen-specific CD4+ T cells were primed predominantly by the injected BM-DCs, with only very weak contribution of resident APCs. Crucially, resident langerin+ CD8α+ DCs only contributed to the priming of CD8+ T cells in the presence of maturation stimuli such as intravenous injection of TLR ligands, or by loading the BM-DCs with the glycolipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) to recruit the adjuvant activity of activated invariant natural killer-like T (iNKT) cells. In fact, injection of α-GalCer-loaded CD1d-/- BM-DCs resulted in potent iNKT cell activation, suggesting that this glycolipid antigen can also be transferred to resident CD1d+ APCs. While iNKT cell activation per se was independent of langerin+ CD8α+ DCs, some iNKT cell-mediated activities were reduced, notably release of IL-12p70 and transactivation of NK cells. We conclude that both protein and glycolipid antigens can be exchanged between distinct DC species. These data suggest that the efficacy of DC-based vaccination strategies may be improved by the incorporation of a systemic maturation signal aimed to engage resident APCs in CD8+ T cell priming, and α-GalCer may be particularly well suited to this purpose.