Drinking water fluoride and blood pressure? An environmental study

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011 Dec;144(1-3):157-63. doi: 10.1007/s12011-011-9054-5. Epub 2011 Apr 12.


The relationship between intakes of fluoride (F) from drinking water and blood pressure has not yet been reported. We examined the relationship of F in ground water resources (GWRs) of Iran with the blood pressure of Iranian population in an ecologic study. The mean F data of the GWRs (as a surrogate for F levels in drinking water) were derived from a previously conducted study. The hypertension prevalence and the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP & DBP) of Iranian population by different provinces and genders were also derived from the provincial report of non-communicable disease risk factor surveillance of Iran. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between the mean concentrations of F in the GWRs and the hypertension prevalence of males (r = 0.48, p = 0.007), females (r = 0.36, p = 0.048), and overall (r = 0.495, p = 0.005). Also, statistically significant positive correlations between the mean concentrations of F in the GWRs and the mean SBP of males (r = 0.431, p = 0.018), and a borderline correlation with females (r = 0.352, p = 0.057) were found. In conclusion, we found the increase of hypertension prevalence and the SBP mean with the increase of F level in the GWRs of Iranian population.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Pressure / drug effects*
  • Child
  • Drinking Water / analysis*
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods*
  • Epidemiological Monitoring
  • Female
  • Fluoridation / adverse effects*
  • Fluorides / analysis*
  • Geography
  • Groundwater / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / chemically induced
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Iran / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Population Surveillance
  • Regression Analysis
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors


  • Drinking Water
  • Fluorides