AMP-activated protein kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK AMPK ), a phylogenetically conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, is a major regulator of cellular and whole-body energy homeostasis that coordinates metabolic pathways in order to balance nutrient supply with energy demand. It is now recognized that pharmacological activation of AMPK improves blood glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, and blood pressure in insulin-resistant rodents. Indeed, AMPK activation mimics the beneficial effects of physical activity or those of calorie restriction calorie restriction by acting on multiple cellular targets. In addition, it is now demonstrated that AMPK is one of the probable (albeit indirect) targets of major antidiabetic drugs drugs including the biguanides (metformin metformin ) and thiazolidinedione thiazolidinedione s, as well as of insulin-sensitizing adipokines (e.g., adiponectin adiponectin ). Taken together, such findings highlight the logic underlying the concept of targeting the AMPK pathway for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.