Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Ozurdex (dexamethasone intravitreal implant) 0.7 mg in the treatment of diabetic macular edema in vitrectomized eyes.
Methods: This was a prospective, multicenter, open-label, 26-week study. Fifty-five patients with treatment-resistant diabetic macular edema and a history of previous pars plana vitrectomy in the study eye received a single intravitreal injection of 0.7-mg dexamethasone intravitreal implant. The primary efficacy outcome measure was the change in central retinal thickness from baseline to Week 26 measured by optical coherence tomography.
Results: The mean age of patients was 62 years. The mean duration of diabetic macular edema was 43 months. The mean (95% confidence interval) change from baseline central retinal thickness (403 μm) was -156 μm (-190, -122 μm) at Week 8 (P < 0.001) and -39 μm (-65, -13 μm) at Week 26 (P = 0.004). The mean (95% CI) increase in best-corrected visual acuity from baseline (54.5 letters) was 6.0 letters (3.9, 8.1 letters) at Week 8 (P < 0.001) and 3.0 letters (0.1, 6.0 letters) at Week 26 (P = 0.046). At Week 8, 30.4% of patients had gained ≥10 letters in best-corrected visual acuity. Conjunctival hemorrhage, conjunctival hyperemia, eye pain, and increased intraocular pressure were the most common adverse events.
Conclusion: Treatment with dexamethasone intravitreal implant led to statistically and clinically significant improvements in both vision and vascular leakage from diabetic macular edema in difficult-to-treat vitrectomized eyes and had an acceptable safety profile.