A number of studies published over the past 10 years have examined the long-term health, functional and quality of life outcomes of adults with childhood-onset rheumatic diseases such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile dermatomyositis and localized scleroderma. As increasing numbers of patients with these conditions survive into adulthood, understanding the adult outcomes of these pediatric conditions has become ever-more important. Identifying modifiable risk factors for poor outcomes is vital to improving care for these patients. In addition, as these conditions and their treatments can affect cardiovascular health, bone health and fertility, particular attention needs to be paid to these outcomes. Preparing patients and their families for a successful transition from pediatric to adult rheumatology care is an important first-step in the long-term management strategy for this expanding patient population.