Risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma

Hepatology. 2011 Jul;54(1):173-84. doi: 10.1002/hep.24351.


Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy after hepatocellular cancer. CC accounts for approximately 10%-25% of all hepatobiliary malignancies. There are considerable geographic and demographic variations in the incidence of CC. There are several established risk factors for CC, including parasitic infections, primary sclerosing cholangitis, biliary-duct cysts, hepatolithiasis, and toxins. Other less-established potential risk factors include inflammatory bowel disease, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, cirrhosis, diabetes, obesity, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and host genetic polymorphisms. In studies where the distinction between intra- and extrahepatic CC was used, some potential risk factors seem to have a differential effect on CC, depending on the site. Therefore, the consistent use of a more refined classification would allow a better understanding of risk factors for CC.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bile Duct Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic*
  • Cholangiocarcinoma / classification
  • Cholangiocarcinoma / epidemiology*
  • Cholangiocarcinoma / etiology
  • Cholangitis, Sclerosing / complications
  • Choledochal Cyst / complications
  • Humans
  • Parasitic Diseases / complications
  • Risk Factors