Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy after hepatocellular cancer. CC accounts for approximately 10%-25% of all hepatobiliary malignancies. There are considerable geographic and demographic variations in the incidence of CC. There are several established risk factors for CC, including parasitic infections, primary sclerosing cholangitis, biliary-duct cysts, hepatolithiasis, and toxins. Other less-established potential risk factors include inflammatory bowel disease, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, cirrhosis, diabetes, obesity, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and host genetic polymorphisms. In studies where the distinction between intra- and extrahepatic CC was used, some potential risk factors seem to have a differential effect on CC, depending on the site. Therefore, the consistent use of a more refined classification would allow a better understanding of risk factors for CC.
Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.