The purpose of this study is to compare infection, pseudoaneurysm formation and patency rates during long-term follow-up of polyurethane and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vascular access grafts maintained with contemporary endovascular methods. During a 34-month period, 239 polyurethane and 125 carbon-impregnated PTFE vascular access grafts were placed in 324 consecutive patients. Thirty-six patients (9.9%) developed a pseudoaneurysm (anastomotic, n = 6 or at the needle-stick site, n = 30). An additional 19 patients (5.2%) required graft excision for infection. Three-year graft infection and pseudoaneurysm formation (at needle-stick site) rates were similar in polyurethane and PTFE grafts (11% versus 8%, P = 0.61, and 17% versus 23%, P = 0.72, respectively). Three-year secondary patency was better in polyurethane than PTFE grafts (69% versus 57%, respectively, P = 0.012). Straight upper arm polyurethane grafts had the best secondary patency (P = 0.001). Contemporary long-term secondary patency of vascular access grafts is satisfactory. Further follow-up is necessary to compare late infection and pseudoaneurysm formation rates.