Intracellular cAMP signaling by soluble adenylyl cyclase

Kidney Int. 2011 Jun;79(12):1277-88. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.95. Epub 2011 Apr 13.


Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently identified source of the ubiquitous second messenger cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP). sAC is distinct from the more widely studied source of cAMP, the transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs); its activity is uniquely regulated by bicarbonate anions, and it is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and in cellular organelles. Due to its unique localization and regulation, sAC has various functions in a variety of physiological systems that are distinct from tmACs. In this review, we detail the known functions of sAC, and we reassess commonly held views of cAMP signaling inside cells.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenylyl Cyclases / chemistry
  • Adenylyl Cyclases / genetics
  • Adenylyl Cyclases / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Bicarbonates / metabolism
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Cyclic AMP / metabolism*
  • Cytoplasm / enzymology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
  • Humans
  • Isoenzymes
  • Organelles / enzymology*
  • Protein Conformation
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Second Messenger Systems*
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • Bicarbonates
  • Isoenzymes
  • Cyclic AMP
  • Adenylyl Cyclases
  • Calcium