Three cases of great toenail infection are described in which a slow-growing arthroconidial hyphomycete was isolated repeatedly and in pure culture. Direct microscopy revealed hyaline, round to barrel-shaped arthroconidia, hyaline hyphae of varying width, and broad thick-walled brownish hyphae. Three additional isolates were obtained from clinical specimens, for which the results of direct microscopy were unknown or negative. The fungus was resistant to cycloheximide, sensitive to common antifungal drugs by susceptibility tests in vitro and sensitive to benomyl. It was urease positive, hydrolysed casein and tyrosine but not xanthine or hypoxanthine, showed no specific nutritional requirements but grew better on carbohydrate-free media, assimilated 12 carbohydrates and potassium nitrate, and failed to perforate hair. The fungus is described as Onychocola canadensis Sigler gen. et sp. nov., and it is compared to Scytalidium lignicola, Scytalidium hyalinum and the Scytalidium synanamorph of Nattrassia mangiferae (Hendersonula toruloidea).