Inherited forms of mineralocorticoid hypertension

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2011 Jun;18(3):177-85. doi: 10.1097/MED.0b013e3283469444.


Purpose of review: Inherited forms of mineralocorticoid hypertension are a group of monogenic disorders that, although rare, have enlightened our understanding of normal physiology, and subsequent processes implicated in the pathogenesis of 'essential' hypertension. They often present in early life and can be a cause of major morbidity and mortality that can be effectively treated with simple but targeted pharmacological therapy. Interestingly, all the conditions centre on the regulation of sodium transport through its epithelial channel, either directly or through mediators that act via the mineralocorticoid receptor.

Recent findings: In recent years, molecular mechanisms of these conditions and their functional consequences have been elucidated. Diagnosis has been facilitated by plasma and urinary biomarkers.

Summary: We provide an overview and diagnostic approach to apparent mineralocorticoid excess, glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism, familial hyperaldosteronism type 2, Liddle's syndrome, Gordon's syndrome, activating mutations of the mineralocorticoid receptor, generalized glucocorticoid resistance and hypertensive forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / diagnosis
  • Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / genetics
  • Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital / metabolism
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Humans
  • Hyperaldosteronism / diagnosis
  • Hyperaldosteronism / genetics
  • Hyperaldosteronism / metabolism
  • Hypertension / diagnosis
  • Hypertension / genetics
  • Hypertension / metabolism*
  • Liddle Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Liddle Syndrome / genetics
  • Liddle Syndrome / metabolism
  • Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome, Apparent / diagnosis
  • Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome, Apparent / genetics
  • Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome, Apparent / metabolism
  • Mineralocorticoids / blood*
  • Mutation
  • Pseudohypoaldosteronism / diagnosis
  • Pseudohypoaldosteronism / genetics
  • Pseudohypoaldosteronism / metabolism
  • Receptors, Mineralocorticoid / genetics


  • Biomarkers
  • Mineralocorticoids
  • Receptors, Mineralocorticoid