Peripheral blood sampling for the detection of allograft rejection: biomarker identification and validation

Transplantation. 2011 Jul 15;92(1):1-9. doi: 10.1097/TP.0b013e318218e978.


Currently, acute allograft rejection can only be detected reliably by deterioration of graft function confirmed by allograft biopsy. A huge drawback of this method of diagnosis is that substantial organ damage has already taken place at the time that rejection is diagnosed. Discovering and validating noninvasive biomarkers that predict acute rejection, and chronic allograft dysfunction, is of great importance. Many studies have investigated changes in the peripheral blood in an attempt to find biomarkers that reflect changes in the graft directly or indirectly. Herein, we will review the promises and limitations of the peripheral blood biomarkers that have been described in the literature so far.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Chemokines / blood
  • Chronic Disease
  • Endothelial Cells / immunology
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Graft Rejection / blood*
  • Graft Rejection / diagnosis*
  • Graft Rejection / genetics
  • Graft Rejection / immunology
  • Humans
  • Interferon-gamma / blood
  • Isoantibodies / blood
  • Ki-1 Antigen / blood
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • MicroRNAs / blood
  • MicroRNAs / genetics
  • Monitoring, Immunologic / methods
  • Transplantation Immunology


  • Biomarkers
  • Chemokines
  • Isoantibodies
  • Ki-1 Antigen
  • MicroRNAs
  • Interferon-gamma