Objective: To examine how to screen for and establish a correct diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and to identify the outcomes associated with untreated ADHD.
Data sources: PubMed was searched using the key words ADHD, adult, diagnosis, and primary care from the years 1999 to 2009.
Study selection: This search produced 50 publications.
Data extraction: Publications were screened for data specific to the diagnosis or management of adult patients with ADHD in the primary care setting.
Data synthesis: The estimated prevalence of ADHD in adults throughout the United States is 4.4% or approximately 10 million adults. Adults with ADHD by definition must experience impairment from the symptoms of ADHD in at least 2 areas of their life. Despite significant impairment, only 1 in 10 adults with ADHD have received ADHD treatment within the past year. Given the high rates of undertreatment, primary care physicians, who provide much of the general adult mental health care in the United States, are increasingly charged with making the diagnosis of ADHD in adults. ADHD symptoms are often masked by comorbid psychiatric conditions or patient adaptations such as choice of occupation. One of the ADHD assessment tools, a short 6-item screener, can simplify identification and management of ADHD in adults and help identify which patients may require further evaluation.
Conclusions: Primary care physicians should consult with other members of the health care community such as psychiatrists and psychologists when necessary, but should also develop a level of comfort with diagnosing and treating ADHD.
A Process for Developing Community Consensus Regarding the Diagnosis and Management of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderJM Foy et al. Pediatrics 115 (1), e97-104. PMID 15629972.There remain large discrepancies between pediatricians' practice patterns and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for the assessment and treatment of chil …
Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD in Adults in Primary CareB Montano. J Clin Psychiatry 65 Suppl 3, 18-21. PMID 15046531. - ReviewThe prevalence rate of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) indicates that 4.5% of adults continue to exhibit ADHD from childhood. Most adult sufferers o …
Health-related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents Who Have a Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderAF Klassen et al. Pediatrics 114 (5), e541-7. PMID 15520087.Our study shows that ADHD has a significant impact on multiple domains of HRQL in children and adolescents. In support of our hypotheses, compared with normative data, ch …
Recognizing ADHD in Adults With Comorbid Mood Disorders: Implications for Identification and ManagementDW Goodman et al. Postgrad Med 121 (5), 20-30. PMID 19820271. - ReviewThe objective of this study was to assist those in psychiatric clinical practice in the identification and management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) i …
A Practical Guide to Recognition and Diagnosis of ADHD in Adults in the Primary Care SettingL Culpepper et al. Postgrad Med 120 (3), 16-26. PMID 18824822. - ReviewAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly perceived as a childhood disorder, but ADHD symptoms can persist into adulthood. The symptoms, deficits, and c …
Cited by 4 PubMed Central articles
Comparison of Quality of Life, Productivity, Functioning and Self-Esteem in Adults Diagnosed With ADHD and With Symptomatic ADHDM Pawaskar et al. J Atten Disord 24 (1), 136-144. PMID 31043096.Objective: Investigate the association between diagnosis and outcomes in adults with symptoms of ADHD. Method: The Validate Attitudes and Lifestyle Issues i …
Adult ADHD: Risk Factor for Dementia or Phenotypic Mimic?BL Callahan et al. Front Aging Neurosci 9, 260. PMID 28824421.Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has historically been considered a disorder of childhood and adolescence. However, it is now recognized that ADHD symptoms …
DRD4 Gene Polymorphisms as a Risk Factor for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Iranian PopulationSM Tabatabaei et al. Int Sch Res Notices 2017, 2494537. PMID 28630890.There is a significant correlation between the 4R alleles of DRD4 and ADHD in the northwest of Iran.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder During Adolescence in the Primary Care Setting: A Concise ReviewK Brahmbhatt et al. J Adolesc Health 59 (2), 135-43. PMID 27209327. - ReviewAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder with a worldwide prevalence of about 5% in school-age children. This review is in …