Objective: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the most common congenital infections worldwide and a frequent opportunistic infection that aggravates the condition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency and factors influencing HCMV infection among infants of HIV-positive women.
Methods: The study included 35 infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers examined for congenital infections. Children were evaluated for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HCMV, and HCV infection by serological and molecular methods.
Results: HIV-1 infection was found in one child whose mother did not receive antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy, and HCV infection in another infant. HCMV-DNA in the urine was present in 13/35 infants (37.14%) on the 10th day and 24/35 infants (68.57%) in the 4th week of life. The majority of HCMV-infected infants were asymptomatic, although they manifested microcephaly and low birth weight significantly more frequently (p = 0.006 and p = 0.02, respectively). Type HIV prophylaxis did not influence HCMV transmission.
Conclusions: Although often asymptomatic, HCMV infection in infants born to HIV-infected mothers is frequent and may be associated with prematurity, low birth weight, and microcephaly. Diagnostic procedures in children of HIV-infected mothers should involve HCMV.