The interrelationships of glycemic control measures: HbA1c, glycated albumin, fructosamine, 1,5-anhydroglucitrol, and continuous glucose monitoring

Pediatr Diabetes. 2011 Dec;12(8):690-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2011.00764.x. Epub 2011 Apr 17.


Objectives: To describe the interrelationships of glycemic control measures: hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycated albumin, fructosamine, 1,5-anhydroglucitrol (1,5-AG), and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

Methods: In total, 26 subjects of age 4-17 had HbA1c measurement followed within 14 d by three laboratory measures of glycemia and the collection of CGM glucose data (N = 21).

Results: Glycated albumin and fructosamine levels had a higher correlation with each other than with HbA1c. The correlation of 1,5-AG with HbA1c was lower (absolute r value = 0.25). All four measures had a similar degree of correlation with CGM-measured mean glucose (absolute r value = 0.50-0.56) and with hyperglycemic area under the curve (AUC) at 180 mg/dL (0.50-0.60).

Conclusion: Each of the four measures (i.e., HbA1c, glycated albumin, fructosamine, and 1,5-AG) had a similar correlation with mean glucose and hyperglycemic AUC-180. 1,5-AG did not correlate with hyperglycemic AUC-180 better than did HbA1c.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Deoxyglucose / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Female
  • Fructosamine / blood*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Serum Albumin / metabolism*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Serum Albumin
  • glycosylated serum albumin
  • Fructosamine
  • 1,5-anhydroglucitol
  • Deoxyglucose