Synaptotagmins Syt1, Syt2, Syt7, and Syt9 act as Ca(2+)-sensors for synaptic and neuroendocrine exocytosis, but the function of other synaptotagmins remains unknown. Here, we show that olfactory bulb neurons secrete IGF-1 by an activity-dependent pathway of exocytosis, and that Syt10 functions as the Ca(2+)-sensor that triggers IGF-1 exocytosis in these neurons. Deletion of Syt10 impaired activity-dependent IGF-1 secretion in olfactory bulb neurons, resulting in smaller neurons and an overall decrease in synapse numbers. Exogenous IGF-1 completely reversed the Syt10 knockout phenotype. Syt10 colocalized with IGF-1 in somatodendritic vesicles of olfactory bulb neurons, and Ca(2+)-binding to Syt10 caused these vesicles to undergo exocytosis, thereby secreting IGF-1. Thus, Syt10 controls a previously unrecognized pathway of Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis that is spatially and temporally distinct from Ca(2+)-dependent synaptic vesicle exocytosis controlled by Syt1. Our findings thereby reveal that two different synaptotagmins can regulate functionally distinct Ca(2+)-dependent membrane fusion reactions in the same neuron.
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