Malaria, which was eliminated first from Metropolitan France (mainland and Corsica), then in the French West Indies and the Reunion Island during the 20(th) century, remains endemic in two French territories: French Guiana and the Indian Ocean Mayotte island. Despite differences in the dominating plasmodial species and epidemiological patterns, these two territories have achieved marked quantitative improvements (in the reported number of cases and severe cases) thanks to efforts undertaken over the past decade. The situation, however, remains a concern from a qualitative standpoint with the emergence of resistance to antimalarial drugs and logistical and administrative issues which hinder access to treatment. Although malaria was eradicated in Metropolitan France half a century ago, competent vectors remain present in part or all of these territories and can give rise to limited outbreaks.
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