The discovery of Suv39h1, the first SET domain-containing histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMT), was reported in 2000. Since then, research on histone methylation has progressed rapidly. Among the identified HKMTs in mammals, G9a and GLP are the primary enzymes for mono- and dimethylation at Lys 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me1 and H3K9me2), and exist predominantly as a G9a-GLP heteromeric complex that appears to be a functional H3K9 methyltransferase in vivo. Recently, many important studies have reported that G9a and GLP play critical roles in various biological processes. The physiological relevance of G9a/GLP-mediated epigenetic gene regulation is discussed.