Fascin and CK4 as biomarkers for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Anticancer Res. 2011 Mar;31(3):945-52.

Abstract

Background: Several studies have suggested that fascin, cytokeratin 14 and cytokeratin 4 may have significant roles as biomarkers for the progression and survival of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

Materials and methods: This study performed immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays, profiling premalignant lesions and invasive tumors.

Results: Fascin increased across the following states as follows: normal-appearing epithelium (26%) to dysplasia (46%) to ESCC (68%), while CK4 was undetectable in ESCC (0%) compared to normal-appearing epithelium (45%) or dysplasia (41%). CK14 was elevated and invariant in expression. In regression analyses, compared to normal-appearing epithelium, higher fascin expression was associated with a 36% increased risk of dysplasia (odds ratio=1.36) and a 56% increased risk of invasive ESCC (odds ratio=1.56).

Conclusion: Expression of fascin is up-regulated in the transformation from normal-appearing epithelium, through dysplasia, into invasive carcinoma. Expression of CK4, CK14 and fascin did not correlate with patient survival. Fascin has a potential role as an early detection biomarker and CK4 as a tumor marker in ESCC.

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism*
  • Biopsy
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism*
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Female
  • Genes, Neoplasm / genetics
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Keratin-4 / genetics
  • Keratin-4 / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Microfilament Proteins / genetics
  • Microfilament Proteins / metabolism*
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Regression Analysis
  • Risk Factors
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Survival Analysis
  • Tissue Array Analysis

Substances

  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Keratin-4
  • Microfilament Proteins
  • fascin