Brain delivery of valproic acid via intranasal administration of nanostructured lipid carriers: in vivo pharmacodynamic studies using rat electroshock model

Int J Nanomedicine. 2011;6:363-71. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S15881. Epub 2011 Feb 15.

Abstract

The treatment of brain disorders is one of the greatest challenges in drug delivery because of a variety of main barriers in effective drug transport and maintaining therapeutic concentrations in the brain for a prolonged period. The objective of this study was delivery of valproic acid (VPA) to the brain by intranasal route. For this purpose, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were prepared by solvent diffusion method followed by ultrasonication and characterized for size, zeta potential, drug-loading percentage, and release. Six groups of rats each containing six animals received drug-loaded NLCs intraperitoneally (IP) or intranasally. Brain responses were then examined by using maximal electroshock (MES). The hind limb tonic extension:flexion inhibition ratio was measured at 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-minute intervals. The drug concentration was also measured in plasma and brain at the most protective point using gas chromatography method. The particle size of NLCs was 154 ± 16 nm with drug-loading percentage of 47% ± 0.8% and drug release of 75% ± 1.9% after 21 days. In vivo results showed that there was a significant difference between protective effects of NLCs of VPA and control group 15, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after treatment via intranasal route (P < 0.05). Similar protective effect was observed in rats treated with NLCs of VPA in intranasal route and positive control in IP route (P > 0.05). Results of drug determination in brain and plasma showed that brain:plasma concentration ratio was much higher after intranasal administration of NLCs of VPA than the positive control group (IP route). In conclusion, intranasal administration of NLCs of VPA provided a better protection against MES seizure.

Keywords: brain delivery; intranasal route; maximal electroshock; nano lipid carriers; valproic acid.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Animals
  • Anticonvulsants / administration & dosage*
  • Anticonvulsants / blood
  • Anticonvulsants / pharmacokinetics*
  • Blood-Brain Barrier
  • Brain / drug effects*
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Brain / physiopathology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Drug Carriers / administration & dosage*
  • Electroshock
  • Male
  • Nanomedicine
  • Nanostructures / administration & dosage
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Seizures / drug therapy
  • Seizures / metabolism
  • Seizures / physiopathology
  • Valproic Acid / administration & dosage*
  • Valproic Acid / blood
  • Valproic Acid / pharmacokinetics*

Substances

  • Anticonvulsants
  • Drug Carriers
  • Valproic Acid