We present the results of a study performed on a Sicilian population of children with Down syndrome (DS) 0-14 years of age, observed between 1977 and 1988. Data from the present report concern 382 subjects with nonmosaic 21 trisomy, including 239 males (62.6%) and 143 females (37.4%). We excluded all DS children observed in the same period with associated pathology (congenital heart defects, gastrointestinal malformations, malabsorption, hypothyroidism, and thalassemia). Overall, 1,464 measurements were performed of length or height, weight, and head circumference. Means and standard deviation (SD) were calculated for all of these parameters. Our data confirm a trend toward a progressive improvement of growth in children with DS, as shown in other recent reports. The purpose of this study was also to create a "normal growth pattern" useful to evaluate DS children and also to diagnose early pathologic conditions affecting growth, such as autoimmune diseases.