Fluorouracil-based chemoradiation with either gemcitabine or fluorouracil chemotherapy after resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: 5-year analysis of the U.S. Intergroup/RTOG 9704 phase III trial

Ann Surg Oncol. 2011 May;18(5):1319-26. doi: 10.1245/s10434-011-1630-6. Epub 2011 Mar 10.

Abstract

Background: The impact of the addition of gemcitabine to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemoradiation (CRT) on 5-year overall survival (OS) in resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma are presented with updated results of a phase III trial.

Methods: After resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, patients were randomized to pre- and post-CRT 5-FU versus pre- and post-CRT gemcitabine. 5-FU was provided continuously at 250 mg/m(2)/day, and gemcitabine was provided at 1000 mg/m(2) weekly. Both were provided over 3 weeks before and 12 weeks after CRT. CRT was provided at 50.4 Gy with continuously provided 5-FU. The primary end point was survival for all patients and for patients with tumor of the pancreatic head.

Results: Four hundred fifty-one patients were eligible. Univariate analysis showed no difference in OS. Pancreatic head tumor patients (n = 388) had a median survival and 5-year OS of 20.5 months and 22% with gemcitabine versus 17.1 months and 18% with 5-FU. On multivariate analysis, patients on the gemcitabine arm with pancreatic head tumors experienced a trend toward improved OS (P = 0.08). First site of relapse local recurrence in 28% of patients versus distant relapse in 73%.

Conclusions: The sequencing of 5-FU CRT with gemcitabine as done in this trial is not associated with a statistically significant improvement in OS. Despite local recurrence being approximately half of that reported in previous adjuvant trials, distant disease relapse still occurs in ≥ 70% of patients. These findings serve as the basis for the recently activated EORTC/U.S. Intergroup RTOG 0848 phase III adjuvant trial evaluating the impact of CRT after completion of a full course of gemcitabine.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy
  • Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy
  • Adenocarcinoma / surgery
  • Adenocarcinoma / therapy*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage
  • Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives
  • Female
  • Fluorouracil / administration & dosage
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Deoxycytidine
  • gemcitabine
  • Fluorouracil