Pial arteriovenous fistula: a review of literature

Br J Neurosurg. 2011 Oct;25(5):580-5. doi: 10.3109/02688697.2011.566382. Epub 2011 Apr 18.


Pial arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a rare vascular lesion, with less than 120 reported cases in the English literatures (Hoh et al., Neurosurgery 2001;49(6):1351). The angio-architecture, clinical course and therapeutic options are all different from arteriovenous malformation (AVM), dural AVM or other intracranial vascular lesions. A review of literatures to analyse the clinical course of pial AVF was carried out. The presence of varix dictates the clinical course and presentation. Paediatric type had high percentage of varix, and mass effect as clinical presentation while the adult type usually manifest by haemorrhage. Disconnection of direct shunting, either by endovascular or surgically, is sufficient to achieve successful treatment; therefore, total resection of the lesion is unnecessary.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Arteriovenous Fistula / diagnostic imaging
  • Arteriovenous Fistula / surgery*
  • Cerebral Angiography
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / diagnostic imaging
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / surgery*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pia Mater / blood supply
  • Pia Mater / surgery*
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Varicose Veins / surgery
  • Young Adult