Objective: Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a childhood cancer arising from pleuropulmonary mesenchyme. This neoplasm is a sentinel disease in a familial tumor syndrome recently found to be associated with germline mutations in DICER1. Observations of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (OSCST) in PPB kindreds led to further study. We sought to characterize ovarian tumors seen in probands and families with PPB and PPB-related conditions and define germline DICER1 status.
Methods: Patient and family records of pathology-reviewed PPB cases enrolled in the International PPB Registry (IPPBR) were searched for ovarian tumors. Ovarian tumor pathology specimens were obtained and centrally reviewed. Germline DNA from patients with ovarian tumors was tested for DICER1 mutations. Three additional OSCST patients registered in the IPPBR were also tested for mutations in DICER1.
Results: Among 296 kindreds including 325 children with PPB, we observed three children with both PPB and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCT)/Sertoli cell tumors. Among family members of PPB patients, we identified six OSCST (three SLCT, one Sertoli cell tumor, one juvenile granulosa cell tumor, one gynandroblastoma). Age at ovarian tumor diagnosis was youngest in PPB probands and younger in family members than in OSCST in general. Germline DICER1 mutations were identified in four of six patients with OSCST from PPB kindreds and in two of three children with OSCST and no personal or family history of PPB.
Conclusions: Primary ovarian neoplasms, particularly OSCST, are a manifestation of the familial PPB syndrome and may be the initial clinical presentation of DICER1 mutations within a family.
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