Future acceptance of an artificial pancreas in adults with type 1 diabetes

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2011 Jul;13(7):731-6. doi: 10.1089/dia.2011.0013. Epub 2011 Apr 19.


Background: The purpose of this study was to examine future acceptance of an artificial pancreas (AP) and its perceived usefulness, ease of use, and trust in the device.

Methods: A questionnaire, based on the Technology Acceptance Model, was developed to examine future acceptance with its determinants and intention to use the AP. One hundred thirty-two patients with diabetes type 1 treated with insulin pump therapy completed the questionnaire. Using factor analysis and reliability analysis, the number of items was reduced from 34 to 15.

Results: The response rate was 66%. The subjects had a mean age of 43 years, and 34% were male. Almost 75% had the intention to use an AP. There were high scores on perceived usefulness (expected improvement of glucose control: 35.6% moderately agreed and 53% strongly agreed), perceived ease of use (expectation that the AP can be easily handled: 33.3% moderately agreed and 53.8% strongly agreed), and trust (administration of correct insulin dose and reliability of glucose measurement: 40.9% and 38.9% moderately agreed, whereas 32.6% and 28.2% strongly agreed, respectively).

Conclusions: A newly developed questionnaire examining the acceptance of an AP indicated that most patients with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion-treated type 1 diabetes have the intention to use an AP system and have a positive attitude toward perceived usefulness, ease of use, and trust.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / psychology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / therapy*
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / prevention & control
  • Hypoglycemia / prevention & control
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Insulin Infusion Systems
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Netherlands
  • Pancreas, Artificial / psychology*
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care / psychology*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult


  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin