Proteomic analysis identifies galectin-1 as a predictive biomarker for relapsed/refractory disease in classical Hodgkin lymphoma

Blood. 2011 Jun 16;117(24):6638-49. doi: 10.1182/blood-2010-12-327346. Epub 2011 Apr 19.


Considerable effort has been spent identifying prognostic biomarkers in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). The aim of our study was to search for possible prognostic parameters in advanced-stage cHL using a proteomics-based strategy. A total of 14 cHL pretreatment tissue samples from younger, advanced-stage patients were included. Patients were grouped according to treatment response. Proteins that were differentially expressed between the groups were analyzed using 2D-PAGE and identified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Selected proteins were validated using Western blot analysis. One of the differentially expressed proteins, the carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-1 (Gal-1), was further analyzed using immunohistochemistry HC and its expression was correlated with clinicopathologic and outcome parameters in 143 advanced-stage cHL cases. At the univariate level, high Gal-1 expression in the tumor microenvironment was correlated with poor event-free survival (P = .02). Among younger (≤ 61 years) patients, high Gal-1 was correlated with poorer overall and event-free survival (both P = .007). In this patient group and at the multivariate level, high Gal-1 expression retained a significant predictive impact on event-free survival. Therefore, in addition to its functional role in cHL-induced immunosuppression, Gal-1 is also associated with an adverse clinical outcome in this disease.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology
  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm* / physiology
  • Female
  • Galectin 1 / analysis
  • Galectin 1 / metabolism
  • Galectin 1 / physiology*
  • Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis*
  • Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy
  • Hodgkin Disease / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immune Tolerance / physiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Proteome / analysis*
  • Proteome / metabolism
  • Proteomics
  • Recurrence
  • Treatment Failure
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Galectin 1
  • Proteome