Objectives: To analyse changes in contraceptive practice among Czech women, during the last two decades, and to evaluate the associated demographic impacts.
Methods: Recent trends in fertility and abortion are presented and compared with earlier survey data on contraceptive use. Data from four Czech surveys carried out as part of international projects in 1993, 1997, 2005, and 2008 were used to document changes in contraceptive practice among Czech women.
Results: Greater availability and greater acceptance of new birth control methods have resulted in increased contraceptive use and in the replacement of traditional methods with more effective alternatives. While only 42% of women in union (married and cohabiting) used condoms, the pill or an intrauterine contraceptive in 1993, 75% of all women with a partner currently use effective contraceptives. The fertility transition towards delayed childbearing has not resulted in additional requirements in terms of family planning as no increase in the abortion rate among young women is observed.