Aim: This article is a report of a randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of a targeted multiple intervention strategy in reducing the number of patient falls in an acute care hospital.
Background: Prevention of patient falls remains a challenge that has eluded healthcare institutions. The effectiveness of targeted multiple fall prevention interventions in reducing the incidences of falling has not been established.
Methods: Patients who scored 5 and above on the Hendrich II Fall Risk Model, a fall assessment tool, were recruited in 2006. Patients who were randomized to the intervention group received targeted multiple interventions. Both the research groups received the standard fall prevention interventions from the ward nurses. The rates of fall incidences for both groups were reported with 95% CI, calculated using Wilson method and compared using the Chi-square test. The relative risk was estimated and 95% CI was calculated using the methods described by Armitage and Berry. The times to first fall events were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The hazard ratio was reported at 95% CI and the comparison was made using the log-rank test.
Results: There were 912 and 910 participants in the control and intervention groups, respectively. The fall incidence rates were 1·5% (95% CI: 0·9-2·6) and 0·4% (95% CI: 0·2-1·1) in the control and intervention groups, respectively. The relative risk estimate of 0·29 (95% CI: 0·1-0·87) favours the intervention group.
Conclusion: This study showed that targeted multiple interventions were effective in reducing the incidences of falls in patients in the acute care setting.
© 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.