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, 7 (5), 775-8

A Golden Orb-Weaver Spider (Araneae: Nephilidae: Nephila) From the Middle Jurassic of China

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A Golden Orb-Weaver Spider (Araneae: Nephilidae: Nephila) From the Middle Jurassic of China

Paul A Selden et al. Biol Lett.

Abstract

Nephila are large, conspicuous weavers of orb webs composed of golden silk, in tropical and subtropical regions. Nephilids have a sparse fossil record, the oldest described hitherto being Cretaraneus vilaltae from the Cretaceous of Spain. Five species from Neogene Dominican amber and one from the Eocene of Florissant, CO, USA, have been referred to the extant genus Nephila. Here, we report the largest known fossil spider, Nephila jurassica sp. nov., from Middle Jurassic (approx. 165 Ma) strata of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. The new species extends the fossil record of the family by approximately 35 Ma and of the genus Nephila by approximately 130 Ma, making it the longest ranging spider genus known. Nephilidae originated somewhere on Pangaea, possibly the North China block, followed by dispersal almost worldwide before the break-up of the supercontinent later in the Mesozoic. The find suggests that the palaeoclimate was warm and humid at this time. This giant fossil orb-weaver provides evidence of predation on medium to large insects, well known from the Daohugou beds, and would have played an important role in the evolution of these insects.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Nephila jurassica sp. nov. holotype (CNU-ARA-NN2010008). (a) Whole specimen, dry; (b) explanatory drawing to accompany (a); scale bar, 5 mm. Setal brushes and trichobothria diagrammatic. car, carapace; ch, chelicera; cx, coxa; ep, epigyne; f, fovea; fe, femur; lb, labium; mt, metatarsus; op, opisthosoma; pa, patella; Pd, pedipalp; sp, spinnerets; st, sternum; ta, tarsus; ti, tibia; tr, trochanter.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Nephila jurassica sp. nov. holotype. (a) Epigyne, (b) basal part of right leg 3 tibia showing setae, macrosetae, setal brush (right) and cluster of basal trichobothria, (c) close-up of (b) showing trichobothria, (d) coarse setae on dorsal opisthosoma, with a simple (i.e. not plumose) structure, (e) spinnerets and associated finer setae of the ventral surface in contrast to the coarser setae of the dorsal surface, and (f) Nephila pilipes, the giant golden orb-weaver and its web; photograph by P.A.S. at Cape Tribulation, Queensland, Australia. Scale bars, 1 mm. (a) Dry in low-angle light; (b), (c), (d) and (e) under ethanol.

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