Objective: Data on the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in Indians living in the western part of the country are limited. The authors aimed to study the vitamin D status and dietary intake of calcium and phytates in healthy adult volunteers from a city in the western part of India.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care centre in western India. A total of 1137 young (age: 25-35 years), healthy volunteers of both sexes were included in the study. All subjects were assessed for sun exposure, dietary intake of energy, protein, fat, calcium and phytates. Biochemical investigations included calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), total proteins, albumin and creatinine in serum and spot urinary calcium to creatinine ratio.
Results: The serum 25(OH)D concentration for the whole study population was low (17.4±9.1 ng/ml), and that for men and women were 18.9±8.9 ng/ml and 15.8±9.1 ng/ml, respectively. Seventy per cent of the study population had hypovitaminosis D (25(OH)D <20 ng/ml) with a slightly higher prevalence in women (76%). Mean dietary calcium intake of the study population was 322.92±135.17 mg/day and was very low when compared with the recommended dietary allowance (400 mg/day for adults of both sexes) issued by the Indian Council of Medical Research. Dietary phytate was much higher than calcium intake with a dietary phytate to calcium ratio of 2.25±0.76. Serum iPTH had significant negative correlation with 25(OH)D (r=-0.23, p<0.001).
Conclusion: Hypovitaminosis D, low dietary calcium and high phytate consumption are highly prevalent among young healthy adults in the western part of India.