A novel tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system of diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma using outcome analysis of a multi-institutional database*

Cancer. 2011 May 1;117(9):1855-63. doi: 10.1002/cncr.25640. Epub 2010 Nov 18.


Background: Currently, no tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system exists for patients with diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM). The primary objective was to formulate a clinicopathological staging system through the identification of significant prognostic parameters.

Methods: Eight international institutions with prospectively collected data on patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy contributed to the registry. Two hundred ninety-four patients had complete clinicopathological data and formed the basis of this staging project.

Results: Peritoneal cancer index (PCI) was categorized into T(1) (PCI 1-10), T(2) (PCI 11-20), T(3) (PCI 21-30), and T(4) (PCI 30-39). Twenty-two patients had positive lymph nodes (N(1) ) and 12 patients had extra-abdominal metastases (M(1) ). The survival for patients with T(1) (PCI 1-10) N(0) M(0) was significantly superior to the other patients. This group of patients is therefore designated as Stage I. The survival of patients with T(2) (PCI 11-20) and T(3) (PCI 21-30), in absence of N(1) or M(1) disease, was similar. This group of patients was categorized as Stage II. The survival of patients with T(4) (PCI 30-39), N(1,) and/or M(1) was similarly poor. This group of patients was therefore categorized as Stage III. Three prognostic factors were independently associated with survival in the multivariate analysis: histological subtype, completeness of cytoreduction, and the proposed TNM staging. The 5-year survival associated with Stage I, II, and III disease was 87%, 53%, and 29%, respectively.

Conclusions: The proposed TNM staging system resulted in significant stratification of survival by stage when applied to the current multi-institutional registry data.

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • Databases, Factual
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Male
  • Mesothelioma / drug therapy
  • Mesothelioma / pathology*
  • Mesothelioma / surgery
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Neoplasm Staging / methods*
  • Neoplasm Staging / standards
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / surgery
  • Treatment Outcome