A national mass media smoking cessation campaign: effects by race/ethnicity and education

Am J Health Promot. 2011 May-Jun;25(5 Suppl):S38-50. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.100617-QUAN-201.


Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of a large-scale, national smoking cessation media campaign, the EX campaign, across racial/ethnic and educational subgroups.

Design: A longitudinal random-digit-dial panel study conducted prior to and 6 months following the national launch of the campaign.

Setting: The sample was drawn from eight designated media markets in the United States.

Subjects: The baseline survey was conducted on 5616 current smokers, aged 18 to 49 years, and 4067 (73% follow-up response rate) were resurveyed at the 6-month follow-up.

Measures: The primary independent variable is confirmed awareness of the campaign advertising, and the outcome variables are follow-up cessation-related cognitions index score and quit attempts.

Analysis: Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted within racial/ethnic and educational strata to assess the strength of association between confirmed awareness of campaign advertising and cessation-related outcomes.

Results: Confirmed awareness of campaign advertising increased favorable cessation-related cognitions among Hispanics and quit attempts among non-Hispanic blacks, and increased favorable cessation-related cognitions and quit attempts among smokers with less than a high school education.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the EX campaign may be effective in promoting cessation-related cognitions and behaviors among minority and disadvantaged smokers who experience a disproportionate burden of tobacco-related illness and mortality.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Advertising
  • Black People / psychology*
  • Black People / statistics & numerical data
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Health Promotion / methods*
  • Hispanic or Latino / psychology*
  • Hispanic or Latino / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Media*
  • Middle Aged
  • Program Evaluation
  • Smoking Cessation / ethnology*
  • Smoking Cessation / methods*
  • Smoking Cessation / statistics & numerical data
  • United States
  • Young Adult