Objective: To analyse the efficacy and tolerance of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) via high-flow oxygen therapy nasal cannulae in children after withdrawal of mechanical ventilation and/or with moderate respiratory insufficiency.
Patients and methods: A prospective observational clinical study including 34 children between 9 months and 17 years treated with NIMV via high-flow oxygen therapy nasal cannulae. The following variables were analysed: age, sex, respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation, blood gases, clinical improvement, tolerance, onset of complications and treatment failure.
Results: NIMV was used in 13 children after withdrawal of mechanical ventilation and in 21 with respiratory failure. A high percentage (82.3%) of patients improved clinically and/or allowed the mechanical ventilation to be withdrawn, but there were no significant changes in respiratory rate, heart rate, pH, pCO(2) or saturation. NIMV was not effective in 6 patients (17.6%) and required change to a nasal or buconasal mask (5 patients) or intubation (1 patient). Two patients (5.9%) required change of interface to a nasal or buconasal mask, one had nasal erosion, and another, although improved clinically, showed excessive leakage. The duration of treatment was 48 hours (range 1 to 312 hours).
Conclusions: Non-invasive mechanical ventilation via high-flow oxygen therapy nasal cannulae is effective and well tolerated in a high percentage of children after withdrawal of mechanical ventilation or with moderate respiratory insufficiency.
Copyright © 2010 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.