Complex genitalia occur in many arthropods and in some species extreme female morphologies lead to serious mechanical difficulties for males. Tephritid flies offer examples of such complex genitalia. Because of their economic importance and the extensive use of sterile male releases for tephritid control in Texas and Mexico, studies have been done on various aspects of their basic reproductive biology, but the process of intromission has received little attention. The distiphallus of the male of Anastrepha ludens is complex. One membranous sac on the distiphallus is capable of rhythmic cycles of inflation and deflation. Inflations of the sac near the base of the distiphallus probably help propel the aedeagus deeper into the female along with stiffening of the basiphallus and may drive the genital rod (which does not transfer sperm) into the ventral receptacle. We were unable to establish an association between some of the behaviours displayed by males during mating and intromission process.