Currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines are based on the generation of antibodies to the pneumococcal polysaccharide, of which there are more than 90 different types. While these vaccines are highly effective against the serotypes included, their high cost and limited serotype coverage limit their usefulness worldwide, particularly in low resource areas. Thus alternative or adjunctive options are being actively pursued. This review will present these various approaches, including variations of the polysaccharide-protein conjugate strategy, protein-based strategies, and whole cell pneumococcal vaccines. The immunological basis for these different approaches is discussed as well.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.