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. 2011 Jul;205(1):51.e1-8.
doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2011.02.029. Epub 2011 Apr 22.

Medication Use During Pregnancy, With Particular Focus on Prescription Drugs: 1976-2008

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Medication Use During Pregnancy, With Particular Focus on Prescription Drugs: 1976-2008

Allen A Mitchell et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol. .
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Abstract

Objective: The objective of the study was to provide information on overall medication use throughout pregnancy, with particular focus on the first trimester and specific prescription medications.

Study design: The study design included the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study, 1976-2008, and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2003, which together interviewed more than 30,000 women about their antenatal medication use.

Results: Over the last 3 decades, first-trimester use of prescription medication increased by more than 60%, and the use of 4 or more medications more than tripled. By 2008, approximately 50% of women reported taking at least 1 medication. Use of some specific medications markedly decreased or increased. Prescription medication use increased with maternal age and education, was highest for non-Hispanic whites, and varied by state.

Conclusion: These data reflect the widespread and growing use of medications by pregnant women and reinforce the need to study their respective fetal risks and safety.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
BDS, 1976-2008, Boston and Philadelphia centers. Secular patterns of use of any medication at any time during pregnancy and restricted to the first trimester. Average number of medications and proportion of women taking 4 or more medications (n=25,313).
Figure 2
Figure 2
NBDPS, 1997-2003. Average number of any medications taken during pregnancy and first trimester, by center (n=5008).
Figure 3
Figure 3
NBDPS, 1997-2003. Average number of any medications taken during pregnancy and first trimester, by age, race-ethnicity, and education (n=5008).
Figure 4
Figure 4
BDS, 1976-2008, Boston and Philadelphia centers. Secular patterns of use of prescription medications at any time during pregnancy and restricted to the first trimester. Average number of medications and proportion of women taking 4 or more medications (n=25313).
Figure 5
Figure 5
NBDPS, 1997-2003, average number of prescription medications taken during pregnancy and first trimester by center (n=5008).
Figure 6
Figure 6
NBDPS, 1997-2003. Average number of prescription medications taken during pregnancy and first trimester, by age, race-ethnicity, and education (n=5008).
Figure 7
Figure 7
BDS, 1976-2008, Boston and Philadelphia centers. Secular patterns of selected antinausea medications (A) and antidepressants (B) during the first trimester. Proportion of women exposed (n=25,313).
Figure 7
Figure 7
BDS, 1976-2008, Boston and Philadelphia centers. Secular patterns of selected antinausea medications (A) and antidepressants (B) during the first trimester. Proportion of women exposed (n=25,313).

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