The PTPN22 locus is one of the strongest risk factors outside of the major histocompatability complex that associates with autoimmune diseases. PTPN22 encodes lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp) which is expressed exclusively in immune cells. A single base change in the coding region of this gene resulting in an arginine to tryptophan amino acid substitution within a polyproline binding motif associates with type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosis, Hashimotos thyroiditis, Graves disease, Addison's disease, Myasthenia Gravis, vitiligo, systemic sclerosis juvenile idiopathic arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. Here, we review the current understanding of the PTPN22 locus from a genetic, geographical, biochemical and functional perspective.
Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.